Information and communication technologies (ICT) as a determining factor for competitive success in micro, small and medium enterprises (mipyme)
The problem object of the research Starting from TIC as the convergence of audiovisual media, telephone networks and computer networks in order to share information (Daggag, 2014) its scope and importance are visualized as they act as a stimulus for regional trade and help to the recomposition of value chains (Katz, 2009).
The companies that incorporate these technologies in their production processes achieve reductions in costs of inventory management, production and those associated with quality, among others (Kotelnikov, 2007), directly impacting their competitiveness in their performance, growth, expansion and new products, visible benefits after adoption (Consoli, 2012).
In virtue of the fact that competitiveness is a multidimensional phenomenon (Müller, 1995, Bejarano, 1998, Ambastha and Momaya, 2004), it is decided to accept technology as one of the contemporary factors that affect it (Rubio and Aragón, 2006) and to study Microenterprises, Small and Medium Enterprises (MiPyME) because they make up a vital sector for economies representing altogether in the world about 98% of the total of companies, with their consequent high generation of employment and contributes the GDP.
This gives them the role of one of the main drivers of poverty reduction (Singh, Garg & Deshmukh, 2010).Attention is focused on the department of Santander, one of the five largest regional economies of Colombia and within which the hotel industry takes special importance to register occupations higher than 45.00% (Hotel and Tourism Association of Colombia, 2015).
Analyzed the components as a whole, elements of interest are made visible around TIC and MiPyME in order to identify if such technologies determine their competitiveness. Research Objectives • Achieve an identification of ICTs as a determining factor of competitiveness in MiPyME.
• Identify a competitive MiPyME profile that uses TIC as a productive business factor.
• Identify the adoption phase of ICT in the MSMEs subject of analysis. • Analyze and adopt a set of theoretical currents on competitiveness and ICT.
• Serve as a point of reference in the identification and proposals of projects and lines of research
• Prepare a compendium of ideas that take effect as recommendations to enhance, with the productive use of ICT, the performance of MSMEs and the establishment of links commercial activities with other organizations. Research methodology The research work was based on the assumption that in Colombia the information of companies and their activity resides integrally in digital media and sites, thanks to which it is feasible to make inquiries and analysis regarding a particular phenomenon.
This turned out to be something very far from reality and the greatest limitation was made, since only companies report to the chambers of commerce financial information for each accounting year that closes, the other companies, mostly natural persons or sole proprietorships send strictly basic.
The group composed of hotel MiPyMEs in the region formed by the Metropolitan Area of Bucaramaga (AMB), Barichara and San Gil, ICT and business competitiveness give rise to the hypotheses raised regarding the causality of the phenomenon due to the use of these technologies .
The deficiency of information takes place both in the primary source and in the secondary sources, since not even the chambers of commerce or state entities have models and norms that facilitate the periodic, systematized and reliable collection of data on resources and ICT capabilities in the companies.
To this is added that the accounting, financial and organizational information (Employees, among others) of the smallest companies (read microenterprise and small businesses) is an asset not yet quantified and reliable and, much less, of forced reporting to authorized entities. «tecnology»